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Emergency handling procedures used in aviation involve well-considered countermeasures applied by the pilot while prepared checklists provide a step-by-step assistance. Most of these procedures also require a direct interaction with air traffic control (ATC); for example the controller needs to be informed about the nature and the level of urgency of the emergency situation, the kind of required assistance and intended manoeuvers. In return, the controller provides essential information, separates the aircraft from other traffic, allocates airspace (e.g. in case of fuel dumping) or directly assists otherwise. As a summary, emergency situations require efficient and coordinated teamwork as well as a clear communication between controller and pilot and - as far as possible - simple and standardized handling procedures for both. Switching to unmanned aviation, safely integrating remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) in non-segregated airspace will require corresponding standards and procedures, at least for the "certified" UAS category defined by EASA, because it can be expected that the number of incidents in regard to the total number of flights will be in the same range compared to manned aviation. One of the main challenges will be the introduction of a third party to take part in the above mentioned relationship: automatic on-board routines of the unmanned aircraft, executed independently without external triggers. And moreover, the communication between these three "team players" may be restricted, as the failure of air-ground data link is a very prominent issue for RPAS. Following this holistic approach on the relationship between the remotely piloted aircraft, the remote pilot and ATC, this paper describes a bandwidth of common or RPAS specific emergency situations and derives corresponding contingency measures wherever feasible. The usability of existing procedures and standards of manned aviation is discussed (e.g. lost communication procedures, hydraulic failure, engine failure etc.); they are extended to unmanned aviation (e.g. electrical failure, navigational failure) or RPAS specific procedures are pointed out (e.g. loss of sense and avoid capability, loss of automatic / autonomous capabilities). Finally an outlook on next steps for research and implementation is given.
Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2016, Braunschweig
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt - Lilienthal-Oberth e.V., Bonn, 2016
21,0 x 29,7 cm, 10 Seiten
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